The Arnott’s Biscuit company used actual children to advertise the goodness of its Milk Arrowroot biscuits. In a campaign that ran for over 60 years, mothers sent photographs of their children to Arnott’s who selected babies for the promotional ads. The history page of Arnott’s website includes details of the campaign in which those selected won a few shillings and a tin of Milk Arrowroot biscuits.
Just a quick note to regular readers that I’m going to be away from this blog for a little while as I travel west on a long road trip across the Australian continent.
I’ve been busy composing and scheduling short and sweet posts to appear on a reasonably regular basis until my return to the desk at the end of September. Please enjoy them in my absence.
If you’re interested in hearing how the road trip is going, pop over here to Sentio where (internet coverage allowing) I hope to be writing and posting as and when I can.
By all accounts, Florence Taylor (1879-1969) was an achiever. These articles provide a glimpse of the pioneer female architect and civil engineer, “an inveterate founder and joiner” and a bit of a workaholic it seems. The Canberra suburb of Taylor was named in her honour.
AUSTRALIAN WOMEN ARCHITECTS.
SAYS a writer in a NSW paper:- In increasing numbers women are taking up work which by custom and consent has long been regarded as the prerogative of the other sex. Among the newcomers are architects; not so numerous so far as to cause any consternation in the camp of their rivals, but quite able to hold their own when it comes to the drawing board. “Men make houses but women make homes,” quoted Mrs Florence Taylor, the first woman architect of Sydney. “That is an old sentiment isn’t it but we beg now to alter or amend it slightly by adding and houses too if they have the mind to. I’ve had the mind to plan and to build houses since I was a mere girl, and I achieved my ambition eventually, as you see. But it was hard, close work and has taken me 23 years to learn what I know now, and I am still a student and must always remain that right to the end. Before my marriage I was chief draftsman to Burcham Clamp and afterwards I continued and my tally so far as residences are concerned amounts to 50, mostly in Mosman, Neutral Bay and Darling Point.”
Mrs Taylor analysing her profession says that 80 per cent is domestic architecture, and there is a good deal of confusion over the term. It is more than merely planning one room behind or beside another. The planning is a small factor in comparison. One has to be a worker of parts. Essentials are a working knowledge of the relative value of materials and their resistance to stress and strain; a study of history embodying Grecian methods used with beams and posts and how Romans blended the arch with Grecian construction. Gothic architecture an other school, employed small materials which gave increased elasticity and their craft was more nearly engineering than architecture, but we have to know it.
“One of the sorest trials of my profession is to see capable men discounted on their work. My argument is that a client always gets what he pays for and invariably he begins by tying the hands of the person to whom he entrusts the construction of a building. A £2,000 house for £1,000 is something the cleverest architect can not manage, but we are often expected to achieve that, for never yet was there a client who was content to leave it to the expert. It has always been the same. A free hand seems to be the unattainable dream of the average architect”.
Mrs Taylor discounts the theory so often advanced that women, given the qualifications, are better able to plan livable houses of ideal construction. We can do no better than men. We have no better qualifications than they – all things being equal, we turn out the same kind of jobs. The accredited sex sense does not exist. I pay great attention to the social side and its aid in this profession for women. The academic, by itself is not enough! I go further, and say that it is indispensable that a woman who takes up this work should be in the throng as far as possible. She should keep in touch with the march of people and events, and from both take every thing that will help her to keep her mind and ideals progressive “
The door was opened slightly for Taylor when the Institute of Architects granted an ‘associate membership’ to her. Northern Star – 14 October 1920
It wasn’t to take her long to crash through. In the meantime, she continued to demonstrate her consummate networking skills. In 1922, Taylor was elected Vice-President of the Town Planning Association. Sydney Morning Herald
On the 18 August 1923 the Adelaide Mail reported that Florence Taylor was to become a full and equal member of the Institute of Architects.
Another visionary, Florence Mary Taylor (1880-1969), Australia’s first female architect, epitomised female foresight and insight. Florence was 19 when her father’s death forced her to become a breadwinner. With no training — and a hatred of domestic work — she got herself a clerical job in a Parramatta architect’s office.
That architect, Edward Skelton Garton, did not share the male prejudice against women entering his field. He gave her a chance to be articled. Within eight years Florence had finished articles — notching up certificates for 19 subjects. Later, she qualified as Australia’s first civic and structural engineer.
In 1907, Florence married fellow architect George Augustine Taylor, a personality in his own right. George, a pioneer aviator, engineer, surveyor, geologist, astronomer, poet, and artist, and Florence made a formidable team.
They married in St Stephen’s Church, Macquarie Street, Sydney, with two witnesses — who were also their wedding guests. The reception was a cup of tea for bride and groom at a now defunct ABC chain cafe. Thanks to George’s help, Florence made the first Australian glider flight ever attempted by a woman in 1909, taking off from Narrabeen sandhills.
A strong woman who welcomed change, she caused a stir as a young apprentice by introducing a typewriter into her office. Generous to a fault, lover of music (possessing a beautiful soprano voice herself), she often paid tutorship fees for people she considered talented. Founder of the Sydney Arts Club, she in fact studied singing for many years, was famous for her music soirees where anybody who was somebody dropped by, Nellie Melba, for one.
An inveterate founder and joiner, Florence resigned from 38 committees, leagues, associations, and the like when she found she had to take life easy in the 1960s. That left a “handful ” of 24 bodies (mostly charity and cultural) she doggedly still attended. Always a revolutionary thinker-doer, Florence foresaw: tunnels under Kings Cross: a second Harbor Bridge. She also wanted a Civic Square, 50 years ago. If that had been done Sydney would have had a large parkland square between Wynyard Street and Martin Place. When Florence put up the idea, the area did not have one large building. As for her other plans, they were intended for a city worried about the alarming congestion of horse and buggy!
George died in 1928, and Florence kept up his work of publishing journals for master builders and engineers from a tiny office in Loftus Street, Sydney, until she was 80. Interviewed for that birthday, appearing under one of her eye-blinking frivolous hats, soft feminine dress, and lashings of perfume, she announced: “I can’t cook and I can’t sew. I can do eggs two ways —hard and soft. And I’ve got more safety-pins holding my clothes together than Woolworths would sell in a week.”
She died quietly aged 89, at her Potts Point home in 1969, leaving a sister sole beneficiary to her $226,281 will. Florence Taylor and her fellow famous female Australians in all their strivings, never heeded another’s advice. Mused the early English novelist Jane Austen (tongue firmly in cheek): “A woman, especially if she has the misfortune of knowing anything, should conceal it as well as she can.”
More details of this amazing mover and shaker can be found at the Australian Women’s History forum and in this article by Bronwyn Hanna in the Dictionary of Sydney. Bronwyn Hanna also co-authored Florence Taylor’s Hats with Robert Freestone. (Image via Booktopia).
Following a recent post about Pat Hanna, here’s one more image from the Hanna Collection in the State Library of Victoria. Another lantern slide that has survived over time.
View of Pompeii, House of Holonicus – glass lantern slide c 1924 Woodbury Lantern Slide Co (out of copyright).
Here are a few illustrations of 19th century bicycles and related matters via The Chronicle of 24 October 1864, The South Australian Chronicle of 31 August 1895 and The North Queensland Register of 9 February 1898 respectively.
The safety bicycling skirt demonstrates the lengths (literally) some people went to for the sake of modesty. Note the description – “completely hiding the motion of the limbs so ungracefully apparent in an ordinary skirt”. What would they think of today’s modern track cyclists?
This e-book includes the catalogue of Japanese prints on loan for an exhibition held at the Japan Society of New York in April-May 1911. The accompanying lecture by Frederick Gookin was the opening event of that exhibition.
I’ve selected three of the prints in this informative work together with excerpts relating to each of the artists.
Primarily the charm of the Ukiyoé colour-prints is due to the fact that the leading masters of the school were artists of exceptional power. It is also due to the fact that most of them made print-designing their chief occupation, to which they devoted their thought, time, and skill, and that with rare exceptions they were less distinguished as painters.
The name of Suzuki Harunobu is familiar to every admirer of Japanese prints. It is in large measure to his genius that the development of full-colour printing is due. He was not only the first artist to make use of the new process, but he took advantage of it to bring out prints of a novel type. Very dainty and graceful these were, and in the poetic allusions or quiet humour with which they were charged, and in the quality of the brush-strokes with which the drawings were executed, they made a direct appeal to men of taste. Success was instantaneous. By the year 1765 Harunobu had come to the front and distanced all competitors for popular favour. The serenity and compelling charm of his compositions brought him wide fame. Realizing the possibilities that now lay before him, he proudly exclaimed, “Why should I degrade myself by the delineation of actors?” His ambition, he said, was to become “the true successor of the painters in the department of printing”; that is to say, to design prints that should be worthy substitutes for paintings. Instead of restricting himself to a few primary or secondary hues and the variations resulting from their superposition, he mixed his colours to get the precise tint desired, and he used as many colour-blocks as were needed for the effects at which he aimed. The Yedo-yé, or Yedo pictures, as the prints had been called from the fact that they were produced only at the eastern capital, were now denominated nishiki-yé, or brocade pictures, from the number of colours woven together in them. To the printing itself, the charging of the blocks with colour, the character and quality of the pigments and of the paper used, Harunobu gave careful attention, and these things were greatly improved as a result of his experiments.
Best known for this image (via Wikipedia) – Great Wave off Kanagawa – created in 1820, Katsushika Hokusai was a master of wood block printing.
Godkin describes his work in the lecture:
Either Hokusai or Hiroshige might well engage our attention for an entire evening. Both were extraordinarily prolific; Hokusai was the more versatile and has the wider reputation. Both are among the greatest landscape artists the world has ever known. Their numerous prints of landscapes are a revelation of the possibilities of originality in composition and variety of interest in this field. Unless one has studied these prints in fine examples, it is impossible to realize how great is their merit. This is true of all the prints, but particularly true of Hiroshige’s. Between the best impressions and the very good ones the difference is really astonishing. But the best are so extremely rare as to make it probable that because of the difficulty and the cost of printing, very few of them were issued—the publishers finding cheaper editions more profitable.
All, however, were surpassed a few years later by Kiyonaga, the last great artist of the Torii line and the culminating figure in the history of the Popular School. He conquered by the rugged strength and marvellous quality of his brush-strokes, by the richness of his colouring and the ripe mastery he displayed over all the resources of his craft. But also he created a new type of design—that which found expression in the great diptychs and triptychs that stand as the triumphs of colour-printing. At the height of his power his influence over his contemporaries was so great that, without exception, the younger men among them copied his style as closely as they could.
This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at http://www.gutenberg.org/license
From the Daily News (Perth) 11 January 1937, this photograph of a counter to keep track of the number of balls bowled in an over of cricket. The umpire J D Scott had been appointed to the test arena in November of the previous year. (The Advertiser 26 November 1936). This counter is made for 8 ball overs.
Via Wikipedia, here’s a chronology on which countries played what number of balls bowled per over until it was standardised for test cricket.
Since 1979/80, all Test cricket has been played with six balls per over. However, overs in Test cricket originally had four balls per over, and there has had varying number of balls per over around the world up to 1979/80, generally the same as the number of balls per over in force in other first-class cricketin that country.
Balls per over
- 1880 to 1888: 4
- 1889 to 1899: 5
- 1900 to 1938: 6
- 1939 to 1945: 8 (though not in the “Victory” Tests)
- 1946 to date: 6
- 1876/77 to 1887/88: 4
- 1891/92 to 1920/21: 6
- 1924/25: 8
- 1928/29 to 1932/33: 6
- 1936/37 to 1978/79: 8
- 1979/80 to date: 6
In South Africa
- 1888/89: 4
- 1891/92 to 1898/99: 5
- 1902/03 to 1935/36: 6
- 1938/39 to 1957/58: 8
- 1961/62 to date: 6
In New Zealand
- 1929/30 to 1967/68: 6
- 1968/69 to 1978/79: 8
- 1979/80 to date: 6
- 1954/55 to 1972/73: 6
- 1974/75 to 1977/78: 8
- 1978/79 to date: 6
For those unfamiliar with the game of cricket (assuming you’ve read this far), here’s a ‘helpful’ explanation. (Benalla Ensign 10 June 1954)
This apparently hastily created lantern slide served to remind patrons that interval was a great opportunity to partake of a particular brand of cigarette. Interval – time for a Capstan ca 1900 – 1930 is from the Reginald Wood collection of glass lantern slides in the State Library of Victoria.
From The Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate (3 March 1938) a photograph of young women smoking before the general public became aware of its addictive and negative health impacts.
The move to a ban on tobacco advertising
In 1973 the Whitlam government decided to phase out tobacco advertising. The change in government in 1975 meant the Fraser ministry faced a decision on whether to implement or delay the total ban. In a submission to Federal Cabinet, Health Minister Ralph Hunt outlined the medical evidence against smoking and its financial and health costs to the community.
In an opposing Cabinet submission, Post and Telecommunications Minister Eric Robinson argued that the government needed more time to evaluate the issues and to hear from interested parties. Supported by the Department of Primary Industry and the Department of Industry and Commerce, he endorsed the tobacco, broadcasting and advertising industries.
Despite Robinson’s arguments Cabinet determined to continue with the ban and it came into effect on 1 September 1976.
Advertising and promoting cigarettes was par for the course at exhibitions and annual shows like this award-winning display in Brisbane in 1902. Today in Australia, cigarettes are packaged and sold in plain paper with vivid health warnings the only ‘decoration’.
ALFRED GROSS & CO – Tobacco Pavilion Exhibited by Alfred Gross and Co – Cabinet of Tobacco Exhibited by Alfred Gross & Co
Alfred Gross & Co make a special feature this year of the W. D. and H. O. Wills’s trophy, a pavilion-like structure which was decorated early on Wednesday with a broad blue ribbon in honour of the fact that it had received a general order of merit. The principal lines displayed (were Capstan plug and Keystone light and dark tobaccos, together with the well-known Luxury, Sweet Briar, Three Castles, and Capstan cigarettes. In a handsome glass case nearby is shown all Wills’s attractive goods put up in airtight tins. The trophy is attracting a good deal of attention, for the goods displayed upon it are old friends of all smokers, and they are sure to “draw” in every sense, apart from the general attractiveness of the pavilion. Prize Schedule.-Tobacco, Cigars, Cigarettes, &c. Machinery and appliances for manufacture of same: Alfred Gross & Co., Elizabeth Street, tobacco trophy, imported and colonial; also, cigarette trophy, American leaf, each awarded first order of merit.
When I chose the name Now and Then for this blog, it referred as much to the frequency with which I thought I might post to it, as to the places in time element.
Two hundred posts in and I’m looking forward to seeing what topics emerge in the next 200.